IPEP staff have developed many psychometric instruments to measure a range of psychological constructs relevant to performance. The measures have been published in leading peer-reviewed journals and are well used by researchers and practitioners throughout the world. Here are a sample of IPEP-developed measures alongside their journal citation, where readers can obtain more information and extract the measures for use:


Vividness of Movement imagery Questionnaire-2 (VMIQ-2)

The VMIQ-2 was designed to effectively measure vividness of imagery in different in kinaesthetic and visual imagery modalities. The visual imagery modality makes a further distinction between two visual imagery perspectives (Internal visual imagery and external visual imagery). The measure was published in 2008 in the following paper: 

Roberts, R., Callow, N., Hardy, L., Markland, D., & Bringer, J. (2008). Movement imagery ability: Development and assessment of a revised version of the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30, 200-221.


Revised Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2

This measure represents and extension of the VMIQ-2 from 2008, as it also assesses people’s preference for using particular imagery perspectives, the angle that they image from when using external visual imagery, and the order with which they experience visual and kinaesthetic imagery. It was used in the following paper:

Callow, N., & Roberts, R (2010). Imagery research: An investigation of three issues. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 11, 325-329.



Psychological Performance States Inventory

This measure offers a pre-performance assessment of performance anxiety. Please find further information on the measure in the following publication: Jones, E., Mullen, R., & Hardy, L. (2019). Measurement and validation of a three factor hierarchical model of competitive anxietyPsychology of Sport and Exercise43, 34-44.

[Performance Anixiety Questionnaire]

The authors would like to hear  how you are using this measure. Please do send an email with details to Dr Eleri Sian Jones

Self-Discrepancy CSAI-2

Based on Higgins’ (1987) self-discrepancy theory, the Self-Discrepancy CSAI-2 is a modified version of the CSAI-2 used to measure ideal, ought, and feared levels of self-confidence and cognitive anxiety. The Self-Discrepancy CSAI-2 is published in 2004 in the following paper:

Beattie, S., Hardy, L., & Woodman, T. (2004). Precompetition self-confidence: The role of the self. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 26, 427-441.

[Measurement] [Instructions]

Mental Toughness

Mental Toughness Inventory (Sport)

The MTI is an informant (e.g., a coach) rated measure that can be used to assess mentally tough behavior in sports performers, as opposed to the cognitions, attitudes, and affect associated with such mental toughness. Please find further information on the measure in the following publication:

Hardy, L., Bell, J., & Beattie, S. (2013). A Neuropsychological Model of Mentally Tough Behavior. Journal of Personality, 82, 69-81.


Military Training Mental Toughness Inventory (MTMTI)

The MTMTI is a variant of the MTI that can be administered in a military context. Please find further information on the measure in the following publication:

Arthur, C. A., Fitzwater, J., Hardy, L., Beattie, S., & Bell, J. (in press). Development and validation of a military training mental toughness inventory. Military Psychology.



Risk-Taking Inventory (RTI)

Although attitudes to risk within high-risk sport can vary considerably, most existing measurement tools tend to focus only on specific populations of risk-takers. The RTI is a measure of risk-taking that is applicable to high-risk sport participants in general. Please see the following publication for further information.

Woodman, T., Barlow, M., Bandura, C., Hill, M., Kupciw, D., & Macgregor, A. (2013). Not all risks are equal: The risk taking inventory for high-risk sports. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 35, 479–492.


Accidents and Close Calls in Sport Inventory (ACCSI)

Individuals participating in high-risk sport may expose themselves to dangerous situations. The ACCSI measures accidents and close calls experienced during high-risk sport. Please refer to the following publication for more information.

Barlow, M., Woodman, T., Chapman, C., Milton, M., Dodds, T., & Allen, B. (2015). Who takes risks in high-risk sport? The role of alexithymiaJournal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 37, 83-96.

(publication still under publisher copyright)


Sensation Seeking, Emotion Regulation, and Agency Scale (SEAS)

SEAS measures the experiences while, after and between participation in high risk sport. Please refer to the following publication for more information.

Barlow, M., Woodman, T., & Hardy, L. (2013). Great expectations: Different high-risk activities satisfy different motivesJournal of Personality & Social Psychology, 105, 458-475. 

(publication still under publisher copyright)



Trait Robustness of Self-Confidence Inventory (TROSCI)

The TROSCI measures the ability to maintain confidence in the face of disconfirming experiences. Please refer to the following publication for more information.

Beattie, S., Hardy, L., Savage, J., Woodman, T., & Callow, N. (2011). Development and validation of a trait measure of robustness of self-confidence. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 184-191.



Quality of Training (QTI)

Training is integral to the attainment of peak performance in sport. The QTI measures the strategies and goals that are practiced in training for use in subsequent competition. Please refer to the following publication for more information.

Woodman, T., Zourbanos, N., Hardy, L., Beattie, S., & McQuillan, A. (2010). Do performance strategies moderate the relationship between personality and training behaviors? An exploratory study. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22, 183-197.

[Measurement currently unavailable]

Test of Performance Strategies 2 (TOPS-2)

The TOPS-2 was designed to measure a comprehensive range of psychological skills and techniques, and their strategic use by athletes both in competition and at practice. TOPS-2 targets the most salient psychological skills and processes that underlie successful athletic performance. Please refer to the following publication for more information.

Hardy, L., Roberts, R., Thomas, P. R., & Murphy, S. M. (2010). Test of performance strategies: Instrument refinement using confirmatory factor analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 27–35.



Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory (DTLI)

Various leadership measurement tools have been developed by IPEP for administration across different domains (e.g., Education, Outdoor expeditions, Military, Sport, etc), which are based on the DTLI.  For more information, please refer to the following publications.

Hardy, L., Arthur, C. A., Jones, G., Shariff, A., Munnoch, K., Isaacs, I., & Allsopp, A. J. (2010). The relationship between transformational leadership behaviors, psychological, and training outcomes in elite military recruitsThe Leadership Quarterly, 21, 20-32.

Callow, N., Smith, M. J., Hardy, L., Arthur, C. A., & Hardy, J. (2009). Measurement of transformational leadership and its relationship with team cohesion and performance levelJournal of Applied Sports Psychology, 21, 395-412.