Mental Toughness

Mental Toughness has been defined as “the ability to achieve personal goals in the face of pressure from a wide range of different stressors” (Hardy, Bell, & Beattie, 2014). Although there are various interpretations of Mental Toughness IPEP has adopted a neuropsychological approach (personlaity) in identifying Mentally Tough Athletes (see Hardy et al., 2014 below). Further, after identifying such personality charactersitics, research within IPEP has used these findings to successfully enhance Mental Toughness in elite athletes (see Bell et al., 2013 below). IPEP have recently expanded this line of research and have 4 PhD students examining the neuropsychological approach to Mental Toughness in rugby, swimming and the armed forces.

Key publications

Arthur, C., Fitzwater, J., Hardy, L., Beattie, S., & Bell, J. (In press). Development and validation of a military training mental toughness inventory. Military Psychology.

Bell, J., Hardy, L., & Beattie, S. (2013). Enhancing mental toughness and performance under pressure in elite young cricketers: a 2 year longitudinal intervention. Sport and Exercise Performance Psychology, 2, 281-297.

Hardy, L., Bell, J., & Beattie, S. (2014). Mental Toughness and Reinforcement Sensitivity: Preliminary evidence for a neuropsychological model of mental toughness. Journal of Personality, 8, 69-81. DOI: 10.1111/jopy.12034

Beattie, S., Hardy, L., Savage, J., Woodman, T., & Callow, N. (2011). Development and validation of a trait measure of self-confidence. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 184-191.

Key Staff

Dr Stuart Beattie

Prof Lew Hardy

Dr Ross Roberts



Harry Manley


Tommie Du Preez

Harry Manley

Leanne Simpson

Ahmad Alqallaf