Group Dynamics

The group dynamics oriented research conducted within IPEP has tended to focus on team cohesion, and role variables such as role clarity. Research carried out on these topics has primarily been based within a sports setting and to a lesser extent the military, exercise and outdoor education domains. Recent projects have placed an emphasis on measurement development, the integration of personality variables within team contexts, followership, and teamwork. Such investigations help generate a better understanding of how variables under this umbrella term relate to the leadership offered to the team.

Key publications

Callow, N., Smith, M., Hardy, L., Arthur, C., & Hardy, J. (2009). Measurement of transformational leadership and its relationship with cohesion and performance level. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21, 315-412.

Smith, M., Arthur, C.A., Hardy, J., Callow, N. (2013). Transformational leadership, communication, and team cohesion: A multilevel mediation analysis. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 14, 249-257.

Eccles, D., Ward, P., & Woodman, T. (2009). Competition-specific preparation and expert performance. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 10, 96-107.

Key Staff

Image of Nichola Callow

Image of James Hardy

Prof Lew Hardy

Prof Nichola Callow

Dr James Hardy



Leonie Webster

Peter Tomsett